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June

27Jun

Open Access – A market to choose power

by Team Digireach

As per Electricity Act 2003 Open Access is

“Non-discriminatory provision for the use of transmission lines or distribution system or associated facilities with such lines or system by any licensee or consumer or a person engaged in generation in accordance with the regulations specified by the Appropriate Commission”.

The power market may be defined as a system for effecting purchases and sales through available options based on demand-supply dynamics. The Indian power market initially had only limited players. It has now opened to a lot of private players. This has made it a dynamic and vibrant market with a large number of players and rapidly rising volumes.

All 1 MW and above consumers are eligible for open access and it ends the regulators jurisdiction on fixation of energy charges—the power market is heading towards a major transformation.

Open access is one of the key measures to bring about competition in electricity, whereby large consumers have access to the transmission and distribution (T&D) network to obtain electricity from suppliers other than the local distribution company (DISCOM).

Through Open Access, electricity consumers have an option to procure power from alternate sources at competitive prices. Presently, consumers with contract demand of 1 MW and above are eligible for open access. As per the Act, a consumers’ bill will have three parts – wheeling charge, cross subsidy charge and energy purchase charge. While the first two shall remain fixed, consumer could base his decision of procurement as per variable energy purchase charges from suppliers.

The whole concept of Open Access is the consumer exercising choice. There would be multiple vendors of electricity in the market among which the consumers can choose their electricity provider.

On the basis of location of buying and selling entity, the open access is categorized as:

  1. Inter State Open Access:When buying and selling entity belongs to different states. In this case CERC regulations are followed. It is further categorized as:
    1. Short Term Open Access (STOA): open access allowed for the period of less than one month.
    2. Medium Term Open Access (MTOA): open access allowed for a period of 3 months to 3 years.
    3. Long Term Open Access (LTOA): open access allowed for a period of 12 years to 25 years.

 

20Jun

IPDS for sub transmission & distribution network

by Team Digireach

India is a developing country. Power is the mainstay for any growing country. In order to leapfrog into the future, efficient utilization of power generation is of prime importance.

Electricity is the most important factor in the economic growth of any country. And the most critical segment of Power Sector chain including Generation, Transmission and Distribution, is the Distribution Sector. Efficient management of the distribution of electricity sector is mandatory as it acts as an interface between the utilities and the consumers. The real challenge in the power sector today lies in efficiency. However, the poor financial health of the distribution utilities in the States has resulted in inadequate investment in the distribution network making it difficult to meet the increasing demands of power in urban areas.

The goal of IPDS (Integrated Power Development Scheme)  are as follows:

  1. Strengthening of sub-transmission and distribution network in the urban areas;
    Metering of distribution transformers /feeders / consumers in the urban areas.
    3. IT enablement of distribution sector and strengthening of distribution network

The problems the government tries to address by implementing this scheme are as follows:

AT&C losses [The concept of Aggregate Technical & Commercial losses provides a realistic picture of loss situation in the context it is measured. It is combination of energy loss (Technical loss + Theft + inefficiency in billing) & commercial loss (Default in payment + inefficiency in collection).]

  • Establishment of IT enabled energy accounting / auditing system,
  • Improvement in billed energy based on metered consumption
  • Improvement in collection efficiency.

This is a part of the Indian government scheme of Restructured Accelerated Power Development and completion of the Reforms Programme (RAPDRP). It is a flagship programme of the Ministry of Power.

IPDS is important for a brighter future which will help enhance the economic growth of India. Electricity is vital for the overall development of the nation, and the Union Government by launching this scheme is all set to push India in the right direction of development.

Status as per No. 8/2/201 8-IPDS(Pt.) Government of lndia Ministry of Power

Projects worth Rs.30,005 Crore (Distribution Strenglhening work: Rs 2.7,626 Crore in 546 circles, IT enablement: Rs 985 crore in 1931 towns, ERP Rs 640 crore and Smart Meting: Rs 754 crore) have been sanctioned.

Better electricity leads to a better tomorrow. We, at Digital Reach are equipped with the hardware, software, system integration capabilities and domain knowledge to make this a reality.

18Jun

RT DAS and AT&C Losses

by Team Digireach

RT DAS consists of two distinct important terms.

Data acquisition system is the accumulation of data. Real-time means its is based on the time at which it is performed. The delay of data collection is insignificant hence it is real-time. The time delay of transfer of audio signals when we are in a telephonic conversation is called real-time. The person receiving the audio signals is able to initiate conversation based on the audio input he gets from the speaker in real-time. The response is immediate. Having a delay in the data capturing technology will lead to a system failure in certain circumstances.

 

The other part is acquisition and storage. Collection of important parameters leads to study of the functioning of the system. The operator or administrator can plan accordingly and take preventive action which can increase the efficiency of the system. The purpose of any data acquisition system is to gather useful measurement data for monitoring and control.

Major areas of concern in the power distribution sector are high AT&C loss and poor power distribution reliability.  Hence, RT DAS comes into the picture. To address these problems, accurate measurement, diagnosis and remedial action is essential. Some of the parameters based on which the reliability of power is measured in the terms of SAIFI and SAIDI which requires solution based on real time.

To accurately measure reliability of power distribution network and facilitate utility to take suitable administrative action for enhancement of power reliability. The measurement of reliability shall be ensured by a real time data acquisition system (RTDAS) using RTU at substation.

AT & C LOSS(Aggregate Technical and Commercial Loss)

In absence of feeder metering in the past, there was huge losses in terms of T&D and theft of electricity in agricultural consumption. Agriculture consumption is around 25%, utilities were showing I as 40% and correspondingly T&D losses shown as 25%. There was obviously a large amount of theft. T&D loss figures did not capture the major gap between the billing and the collection. AT&C was introduced to get over this particular problem.

What is AT&C loss?

  • It is the difference between units input into the system and the units for which the payment is collected.
  • It is the clearest measure of overall efficiency of the distribution business.
  • AT&C measure both the technical and commercial losses.AT&C Loss(%) = (Energy Input – Energy Realised) X 100
13Jun

Automatic Under-Frequency Load Shedding

by Team Digireach

The maintenance of maximum service reliability has always been the primary concern of the electric utility industry. To ensure this, power systems are always designed and operated such that working is not affected in any system conditions and load requirements are always met. Usually the designing is such that it can hold up service continuity even under emergency situations, but sometimes, unpredictable conditions of faults, forced outages, etc. may occur. When this happens, it is important to ensure that steps are taken to ensure that a major system outage doesn’t occur.

Any part of a power system will begin to deteriorate if there is an excess of load over available generation. If there is an excess of load over generation ratio, the frequency decreases. It is generally recognised that a sudden drop in generating capacity results in a drop in frequency. This drop is not immediate, but rather, happens gradually.

One way to attain the balance between generation and load, before the decaying frequency affects performance, is to increase generation. However this isn’t always possible practically due to system limitations or due to time constraints. So, a more common method is to employ Automatic Under-Frequency Load Shedding (AUFLS). What this does is that it employs a quick and effective means of attaining a balance of generation and load. The application of AUFLS relays throughout the load area, preset to drop increments of load at specific values of low frequency, provides a simple and direct method of minimizing service interruption and alleviating system overloads.

The Load Shedding function provides under-frequency protection at the main distribution substation. As system frequency decreases, load is disconnected in discrete steps according to frequency thresholds. Protective relays are used for automatic gradually under-frequency load shedding. Under and over-frequency relays are specified by frequency settings and delays. And all this can be incorporated by using IoT Gateway which requires minimum system integration and is fully compatible with most of the applications.

7Jun

IoT in Utilities

by Team Digireach

 

IoT is considered as the next industrial revolution, Industry 4.0. The concept of IoT is to develop advanced solutions and services, enhance productivity & efficiency, solve critical problems, and improve real-time decisions. IoT is changing industry business models, and the utility industry is investing in IoT technology to transform its operations and enhance customer experience. IoT connected utilities can monitor and regulate operations in real-time to maximize efficiency and perform preventive maintenance. Moreover, IoT accelerates digital transformation in utilities.

Implementation of IoT can drastically change the direction the utility industry is headed towards. Many utility companies are on the verge if adopting IoT. Simply the investment in smart grid, smart meters, and home automation can allow utility companies to comprehensively recapture the energy industry and drive top-line growth.

When the utility industry adopts IoT, it connects with the consumer, with the grid, with the world, on a whole new scale. There’s a huge influx of data that can be harnessed to improve services. Companies can utilize smart meters and grids to optimize how the power is distributed. These systems enable greater forecasting capabilities, thereby driving down costs of generation through more efficient scheduling and reliability in the grid, as well as enabling customers to foresee spending patterns and better plan their energy usage over time.

A few applications and benefits of IoT in utilities:

  1. Smart meters are IoT-connected sensors on consumer utility lines. These report data back directly to the company, enabling real-time monitoring and analyzing of data. This can also alert company of maintenance issues and help resolve issues quicker.
  2. Condition-based maintenance routines can be improved by utilities using sensors which measure performance. Data is collected via communication networks to pinpoint problems and predict possible issues using analytics.
  3. Smart buildingscan control light and temperature in real time for maximum comfort and efficiency using interconnected sensors and building control systems.
  4. Precise water irrigation systemswith IoT sensors, including trickle and subsurface methods, greatly reduce water consumption and have the ability to integrate with utility demand response systems.
3Jun

IoT in Textile Industry

by Team Digireach

The textile industry has come a long way from the old handcrafting days, but it still has a huge potential for progress. As an industry which used to be highly labor intensive but has now achieved a high degree of automation, textile has been and will continue to be at the forefront of the adoption of new technologies.

Foremost among these new technologies is Internet of Things (IoT). Being an industry which relies heavily on fine details such as equipment monitoring, stock management for dyes and raw material, supply chain visibility, workforce management and coordination, and analysis, textile is the most suited industry for digital transformation.

Scope of IoT innovations in Textile Industry-

  1. Factory Operations Monitoring- Factory environment parameters such as humidity, temperature, etc., can seriously affect the quality of fabric and thereby the entire manufacturing process. Using sensors connected to the cloud, we can keep track of these conditions and regulate them, as necessary, using air conditioners, de humidifiers, etc.
  2. Equipment Maintenance- Machine properties and outputs can be synced to cloud data and monitored in real time. Necessary periodic and/or preventive maintenance can also be set to trigger when certain conditions are met.
  3. Energy/ Efficiency – The energy consumed in each of the machines can be monitored. Data can be collected and algorithm can be fad into the system to determine the efficiency of each of the unit. This would enable to do proper planning and lead to better efficiency.

While there is a huge scope for progress, there are also challenges which have to be overcome to make IoT in textile industry a reality-

  • Connection overhead and huge bandwidth consumption of multiple weaving machines connected over Ethernet
  • Administration and management of voluminous structured and unstructured data
  • Compatibility of ERP and Operations, Administration & Management System with IoT Service Management Platform
  • With huge amounts of data transferred online every second, the biggest challenge to IoT platforms is security and data protection.

If these challenges can be dealt with successfully textile industry can be optimized to its full potential with the incorporation of IoT.

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